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Everything you need to know about Linux

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Linux is open-source operating system released in 1991 and used only for computer but now it has been expanded and used on phones, web servers and more recently networking gear. Linux are getting popular day by day due to open source, free and security. So, about 80% of developers has swift to Linux operating system.

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What is Linux?
Linux is an open source operating system based on Unix and can be installed on PC.

History of Linux


Linux Kernel
This is the core of the system and sends instructions to the CPU, peripherals and memory. It has a monolithic kernel which means that functions like the file system, virtual memory, and various system calls take place. While internal workings on the Operating system can involve over time, the kernel and user space.

Linux Bootloader
The processes that manage the booting up of the system.

Linux Daemons
Daemons are background services which were running after the boot time or when computer is fully shutdown.

Linux shell
This is most powerful feature in linux. The entire linux can be controlled through the shell. It can be complicated for users that are used to working in graphical environment but most network professionals are used to operating in shell.

Linux Desktop Environments
Don't like the GUI windows or missing something you're looking for? Switching to new desktop environment helps you to bring new features, new user interface and user experience. Just install your desired desktop environment to meet the needs and tastes for your needs.

Linux Commands
Linux commands are very helpful and makes you jobs done faster, easier and more efficient.

Linux package manager
For CLI expert (Command Line Interface) user, can easily manage the package such as install and remove through Terminal. But for those who are not familiar with Terminal, they can simply use the package manager application.

Linux Community
As noted, Linux's code is open source and its code is released under the permissive GNU Public License. This means :
  1. Linux operating system can be downloaded and installed for free.
  2. You can study about the OS and customize as per your needs.
  3. There are unlimited redistribution privileges of the original or modified versions of operating system.
One of the clearest signals that Linux is a community-based project is that the kernel is maintained not in secrecy in a corporate lab but rather via a public email list, where all the proposed updates and debates on whether they should be adopted into the operating system are available for anyone to see. Anyone can join the Linux community by participating in and contributing to this mailing list.

Who is Linus Torvalds?
Linux Torvalds was born on December 28, 1969, who was known as the creator or developer of Linux kernel, which became the kernel for many Linux distros. The MINIX code was available for educational purposes but couldn't be reused for commercial applications. In 1991, a 21-year-old computer-science student named Linus Torvalds announced that he was going to create new operating system, inspired by MINIX but written from scratch so that the code could be released as open source under the GNU GPL. He combined the name MINIX with his own name and dubbed the new operating system Linux.

Linux distributions
Linux is open source, there is no one vendor selling it; theoretically, you could download the kernel, a desktop environment and various other utilities and applications, and install them all yourself. In practice, these OS components are packaged together into called a distribution — basically, a Linux OS tweaked in a particular way that's ready to use out of the box.

Again, in theory anyone could put a Linux distribution together, but most are offered by companies and nonprofit organizations. Commercial distributors may charge for their distribution, or offer optional paid support services. Some of the better known Linux distributions are:
  1. Ubuntu
  2. Open SuSE
  3. Debian
  4. Red Hat
  5. Fedora
  6. Oracle Linux
  7. CentOS
  8. Arch Linux
  9. Mandriva
 
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